|By thanx on Sunday, February 16, 2003 - 04:51 pm: Edit|
okay guys, im takin 5 aps in may and 3 of them are in a span of 24 hrs.
Thursday: Calculus AP morning
Art History AP afternoon
Friday: US History AP morning
.....AHHHH! im so scared, what should i do....has anyone else been in a similar situation and can give me advice...it doesnt look like i'll have enough energy.....................
also: how many aps do u need for sophmore standing at the Uc's?
|By ur screwed! on Sunday, February 16, 2003 - 04:57 pm: Edit|
my friend did that. he took 8 aps in one year. didnt pass half of them. got 1s on 2 of the 8 he took...heheh
|By lo on Sunday, February 16, 2003 - 05:05 pm: Edit|
that's at least 27 hours!
|By wolfsterx on Sunday, February 16, 2003 - 07:40 pm: Edit|
Ya, last year I took art history, calc, and english. The calc exam was in the morning of the first day. The art history and english were on the same day of the second day. You'll make it.
|By Incognito (Incognito) on Sunday, February 16, 2003 - 07:53 pm: Edit|
I typed all my notes for the APUS exam if you want me to post them...
|By ap dummy on Sunday, February 16, 2003 - 07:59 pm: Edit|
think thats bad? i have eng lit and french lit on may 5, then gov and env sci on the same day the next week, and comp sci is by itself. 2 exams in one day, twice??? wow, i chose those courses poorly.
|By Dori on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 02:56 pm: Edit|
i think you need 9 or more APs to get sophemore standing....
just study, don't stress, and do the best you can
|By Paul on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 06:25 pm: Edit|
please post your notes Incognito. It would help me very much.
|By dxiw on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 07:43 pm: Edit|
hey incognito, could you email me your notes from apush? I'd appreciate it.
|By - on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 08:28 pm: Edit|
|By Incognito (Incognito) on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 08:35 pm: Edit|
If you want me to mail them, give me your info. Otherwise I'll just post them here on the thread...
|By woah on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 09:02 pm: Edit|
post them, cause then i can read them too...
|By lookoverthere on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 09:03 pm: Edit|
he posted them in the sat prep board a while back....
|By Incognito (Incognito) on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 09:09 pm: Edit|
Here are some of my notes from the REA prep book. I posted these notes on the SAT/ACT forum if you want to go there and read my disclaimer. I SUGGEST YOU READ THE DISCLAIMER!!!!!
Dont bash me if you dont like them; I'm doing you a fovor!!
Treaty of Tordesillas: Fredinand+Isabella want confirmation of their land ownership. “Line of Demarcation” drawn by pope. Splits S. Am for Port+Sp. Port gets Brazil. Treaty of Tor: line of Demar went east. Balboa (Sp) saw the Pacific. De Leon (Sp) explored Florida for gold. Cortes attacked Aztecs. Narvaez (Sp) went through Gulf Coast. Vaca was w/him. Vaca: story of 7 cities of gold. Soto: SE US. Saw Miss R. Coronado saw the Grand Canyon. Sps in Amer lived in estates (“encomiendas”). Encomienda system later replaced by “hacienda system.” Native Sps in Amer=“peninsulares.” Creoles were their kids.
Cabot (Eng) looked for NW Passage. 1st to reach N. Amer. Verrazzano (Fr) wanted to be like Cabot. Magellan (Sp) sailed around S. tip of S. Amer. Verrazzano sailed coast of US. Cartier (Fr) sent to St. Lawrence R. Went to Montreal. Fr stopped sending ppl for a while. Eng efforts were supported by private (not gov) funds. Free f/gov interference. Sp. built fort in St. Augustine, Fl. 1st city in N. Amer. Francis Drake stole f/Sp ships. He sailed around the world. ‘Liz backed him,+King Phil sent unsuccessful Armada.
Gilbert sent Frobisher to find NW Passage. Gilbert got charter:let him find col w/his own $+ guaranteeing colonists all rights of Engs. Raleigh settled further south. Named Virginia. Roanoke Island (N. Carol). Expedition’s leader=White. Roanoke settlers vanished. Hakluyt urged Eng to colonize Am. One group based in London got charter to N Am btwn Hudson R+Cape Fear R. Other group got charter to Plymouth. “Vir Company of London”=1st group. “Vir Company of Plymouth”=2nd group. Joint-stock companies. Vir Comp of Lon sent to James River. Named Jamestown (1st permanent Eng settlement in N Am). Col doing poorly. Ppl expected gold. Poor rltns w/Powhatan. John Smith controlled col. Kept col in shape. John Rolfe made tobacco. Vir got a cash crop. Indentured servants sent to Jamestwn. La Warr, Gates, and Dale imposed harsh rule on cols. Vir attracts few ims. Sandys made changes designed to attract more ims. House of Burgesses founded (1st rep assembly). Private land ownership. Afs arrive. King James I wanted to have Vir for himself. He revoked the Lon Comp’s charter and made Vir a royal colony. Charles eventually restored rights to cols. St. Lawrence R was Fr gateway to interior of N Am. Sam de Champlain est a trading post in Quebec. New Fr spread. Fr had good rltns w/Inds. Marquette explored Miss Valley. La Salla followed riv to its mouth. New Fr had a low pop and little support f/Fr.
New Netherlands:Henry Hudson. Trade furs w/Iroquois. Albany=Fort Orange. Dutch W Ind Company. Patroon system was a feudal system. “Unstable pluralism” due to many ethnicities.
Puritans+Separatists. Separatists go to Holland. Became Pilgirms. Led by Will Bradford. Landed on Cape Cod. Made Mayflower Compact. Ests a foundation for orderly gov based on consent of the ppl.
More Puritans then Separatists. Puritans persecuted by Charles I. Sought to charter a joint-stock company (Massachusetts Bay Company). Charter granted. Led by John Winthrop. His ppl didn’t go through the “starving time” that others had. General Court selected by freemen (adult male church ppl). “Great Migration”=large movement of Puritans to Mass. Roger Williams fled to Narragansett Bay. Founded the settlement of Providence. Anne Hutchinson fled+founded Portsmouth. Wlms secured charter combining Providence, Portsmouth, and other settlements that sprung up into the colony of Rhode I. Will had religious toleration. RI suffers f/pol turmoil. Connecticut founded (Tom Hooker). Felt Mass was exercising too much authority. Made Fundamental Orders of Cct (1st written const in Am). Orders provided for a rep gov. Davenport (New Haven). “Mass not exercising enough power.” New charter combined New Haven+ Cct=col of Cct. New Hamp formed. No dissidents. Charles II chartered separate royal col of New Hamp.
Md: Eng stops giving charters to joint-stock companies. Gave charters to individuals (proprietors). Like feudalism. 1st proprietary colony=Md. Granted to Calvert (Lord Baltimore). Refuge for Eng Catholics. Act of Religious Toleration guaranteed pol rights to all Christians. Balt had rep assembly. Md=a copy of Vir.
Carolinas:Charles II gave proprietors Carolinas. Feudal society. Unworkable. Carolina grew slowly. Upset ppl f/Vir go to NC. SC settled by Eng planters f/Barbados. Charlestown in SC. Sl. (1st col to use sl f/start).
NY&NJ:Charles gave the Duke of York title to Dutch lands in Am. James sent a fleet (Nicols) to New Amsterdam. James (York) opposed rep assemblies. Nicols granted as many other civil rights as possible. Puritans agitated of self-gov. (4th para on p:11).
New Eng families=big. New Engs live longer then ppl in Chesapeake. New E had a more stable society then the Chesapeake colonies. New E=good ed,+ship building. Tobacco in Vir+Md. Rich families in Chesapeake: Byrds, Carters, Fidzhughs, Lees,+Randolphs. Dominate social+pol life. At 1st, sls were treated as indentured servants. Then they were treated as sls. NC followed Vir in econ and social dvlpt. SC: large plantations and many sls. Stable crops: rice and indigo.
(Last para/p:12). Parl passed Nav Acts in favor of Mercntlsm. Trade w/cols in ships made in Eng /Am, w/at least 75% Eng/Am crews. Goods go to/f/Eng+Am only. Nothing could be imported to cols w/o going through Eng 1st. New Es did well because of ship building. It hurt Chesapeake by driving down the price of tobacco. Nav Acts transferred $ f/Am-Eng by increasing prices Am had to pay for Eng goods and lowering prices Am received for their goods. Merc brings war btwn Eng+Holland. Charles II wanted to enforce Nav Acts. Vir upset w/Royal gov William Berkeley. Nathaniel Bacon came to Vir. Bacon opposed Berkeley. Disagreement over Indian policy. Bacon burned Jamestown. Eng ran Vir for the benefit of Eng.
Ppl in New E:more concerned about $. Half-Way Covenant provided a sort of half-way church membership. King Philip’s War:Wampanoag chief King Philip led war. Vir suffered the most f/Ind attacks.
Dominion of New E:Increasing imperial control of cols. Mass charter revoked. King J II wants to dominate New E. DNE abolished rep assemblies and facilitated the imposition of Chrch of Eng on New E. Edmund Andros headed DNE. Will of Orange+Mary generally accepted the uprisings. Leisler led a rebellion in NY. He was executed. Poisoned pol environ in NY for yrs. Salem Witch Trials in Mass.
Penn founded as a refuge for Quakers. Placed little importance on Bible. Will Penn got land f/Charles II. Became Pennsyl. Penn gave Delaware a separate legislature. Delaware once part of Pennsyl.
Molasses Act would have been disastrous for New Eng merchants. The act wasn’t really enforced. Constant drain of wealth f/Am-Eng. Cols wanted to make a paper $. Eng blocked the plan. Col Am econ was generally prosperous. Ges migrated to cols because of wars, poverty, and religious persecution. Many went to Pen and formed “Pennsylvania Dutch.” Scots-Irish moved W of the Appalachians.
There were several wars. 1st=King Will’s War (War of League of Augsburg). No major battles in Am. Border raids f/Indians. Ended by Treaty of Ryswich. 2nd war: Queen Anne’s War (War of Sp Succession), Amer fought Fr+Sp. Ends w/Treaty of Utrecht. Eng got territorial gains. 3rd war: King George’s War (War of Jenkins’s Ear, War of Austrian Succession). Am played a big role. Will Pepperell captured the Fr fortress of Louisbourg. Eng gave it back to Fr at Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
Georgia=buffer state. James Oglethorpe. Enlightenment and rtnlism in Am. John Locke. Justified Eng’s Glorious Rev. Life, liberty, property. Enlightened Am: Ben Franklin. Didn’t deny existence of God.
Great Awakening:Religious revivals. Frelinghuysen,Tennent,Edwards (“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”)=major ppl. Biggest preacher=Whitefield. Division btwn Old Lights+New Lights. Ivy League Schools.
French and Indian War: (See p:17 and 18).
Writs of Assistance: general search warrants issued to help royal officials stop evasion of Eng’s mercantilist trade restrictions. James Otis argued that Writs of Assistance were contrary to natural law.
Grenville wanted to deal w/ntnl debt. Chief Pontiac attacked Am border. Gr Sent Royal Navy to suppress Am smuggling+enforce Nav Acts. He issued the Proclamation of 1763. He made the Sugar Act (Revenue Act). Raised revenue by taxes. Goal=to raise revenue rather then control trade. Unlike Molasses act, it was enforced. No trials by jury. Gr made Quartering Act (required cols to pay for maintenance of troops). Gr made Currency Act. Forbade col f/issuing $ not redeemable in gold/silver. Hurt econ. Gr passed the Stamp Act. Imposed a direct tax on Ams for the 1st time. Ams had to buy revenue stamps. Drained $ f/cols-Eng. “Tax w/o rep=tyranny.” Lots of resistance in Mass. Led by Otis+Sam Adams. Made Sons of Liberty. In Vir, P Henry wrote 7 resolutions denouncing Stamp Act. Cols meet at Stamp Act Congress. Called by Otis. Passed resolutions against Act. Wanted to get rid of Sugar and Stamp Act. There was a boycott of Eng goods. King G III replaced Gr w/Rockingham. Parl repeals Stamp act,+issued Declaratory Act.
Parl taxed cols w/Townshend Duties (things are taxed when imported). Twhd Acts included use of courts, writs of assistance, and paying of customs officials out of the fines they levied. Towns suspended NY legis for being anti-Quar Act. Dickinson wrote “Letters f/a Farmer in Pennsylvania” condemned Twhd Acts. (See p:21,+1st para/p:22). Relative Peace ends w/the Tea Act. British E. Ind Comp gave some kind of monop over cols. Had taxes on tea. Amers didn’t want to be taxed. (See last 2 paras of The Tea Act/p:22).
Intolerable Acts: 4 Acts (Coercive Acts). Boston Port act closed port off f/trade. Mass Gov Act increased power of Mass royal gov at expense of legis. Admin of Justice Act:royal ppl accused of crimes in Mass are tried elsewhere. A strengthened Quartering Act let the new govrnr (Gage) put troops anywhere, including homes. Quebec Act (not coercive) extended Quebec to the Ohio Riv, est Cath as religion,+gave Quebec a gov. Quebec Act + Coercive Acts=Intolerable Acts. 1stCont Cong (Mass) made Suffolk Resolves. Denounced Int Acts+called for non-import+prep of Am militia. Cong rejects Galloway’s plan (called for a union, and different rltns w/Parl). 2nd Cont Cong would meet if col’s grievances weren’t satisfied.
The War for Independence: (See p:23-28).
States formed consts. Connect+Rhode I kept col charters. Penn had a Dem const. Mass said consts should be made by conventions, not legislatures. J. Dickinson (supported a strong central gov) played a major role in writing the Articles of Confederation. Articles, however, had a weak ntnl gov. Arts provided for a unicameral Cong in which each state had one vote, like in the Cont Cong. Exec:13 ppl, 1 f/each state. Unanimous consent needed to amend Arts. Ntnl gov could make war, treaties, determine # of troops+$ each state would contribute to the war, settle disputes btwn states, admit new states,+borrow $. It could not levy taxes, troops, or regulate commerce. Dispute over lands to the W. Vir:lots of land. Md:none. Ntn=$ trouble. Inflation. Loans f/Fr+Amst. RI=only state that didn’t want ntnl gov to have power to tax. (3rd r para/p:29).
The Trans-Appalachian West and the Northwest Ordinance: (See p:29-30).
Econ hard times. John Jay negotiated w/Sp minister Gardoqui a treaty that would have granted lucrative commercial privileges in exchange for US acceptance of Sp’s closure of the Miss Riv as an outlet for agric goods of Kentucky+Tennessee. W+S were upset. Some spoke of dissolving the union.
W. Mass farmers hurt by bad econ. Results in Shay’s Rebellion. Ppl paid an army to put down the rebellion. Ppl then call for a strong central gov.
Annapolis Convention called for a conv of states to meet to revise the Articles of Confederation.
Madison: “Father of the Constitution.” “Virginia Plan” called for an executive branch and 2 houses of Congress, each based on population.
William Peterson: “New Jersey Plan” called for a unicameral legislature w/equal representation for the states and increased powers of ntnl gov.
Benjamin Franklin: “Great Compromise” proposed Senate and House (=Connecticut Plan??).
Slavery (sl) neither endorsed nor condemned in Const.
If no running candidate received a majority, the House would decide on the winner.
Pro-ratification of Const= “Federalists.”
Massachusetts ratified const after promised Bill of Rights. In Virginia, Patrick Henry and George Mason opposed the Const. Fed Papers and Alex Hamilton made NY pro-const.
Article 1: Legislature: divided into Senate and House. House can bring impeachment charges. (See p: 33).
Article 2: Executive: 4-yr terms.
Article 3: Judiciary
Article 4: Interstate Relations: (See p:34).
Article 5: Amending Process
Article 6: Hierarchy of Laws. (p:34).
Article 7: Ratification: 9 out of 13 states must ratify const.
Amendments: (p:34 + p:35). (Also See p:35 + p:36).
John Adams: 1st vice pres.
Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for a Supreme Court.
Const says nothing about a Cabinet.
Alex Hamilton: “Report on the Public Credit” proposed funding of the ntnl debt at face value, fed assumption of state debts, and the est of a ntnl bank. “Report on Manufactures” proposed program for fed stimulation of ind development, through subsidies and tax incentives. Wanted to tax distillers. Beneficial to wealthy.
Founding fathers:anit-pol parties. Feds (Hamilton) vs. Reps (Jefferson). Madison was a repub.
During Fr Rev, G. Wash made Proclamation of Neutrality. Genet went against this by backing Fr. Eng hostile to US. John Jay negotiated a treaty w/Eng.
Tom Pinckney:Treaty w/Spain. Ams can go to Mis Riv+New Orleans+trade. N. border of Fl est.
Wayne defeated Inds (Battle of Fallen Timber). Treaty of Greenville clears Ohio territory of Inds.
John Adams (Fed) won election of 1796. He was very dogmatic. XYZ affair. Talleyrand.
Quasi-War: Hostilities w/Fr. No trade w/Fr. Adams let ships capture and attack Fr vessels. Congress made the Dept of the Navy. Napoleon signed a treaty w/the US.
Alien Act increased the requirement of time for an im to become a US citizen. Sedition Act helped Adams by letting him jail his critics in the media. (Passed under Adams?)
Election of 1800: Tie btwn Burr and Jefferson. Choice went to House. Hamilton backed Jefferson. Jefferson won.
Federalist Congress passed Judiciary Act of 1801: Adams filled vacancies w/party supporters (last minute commissions). John Marshall was appointed. Wash DC designed by Pierre L’Enfant.
Marbury v. Madison:Marshall asserts power of the judicial review over fed legislation. (p: 41+2).
Jefferson began to remove Fed judges by impeachment. Tried to impeach Samuel Chase.
Under Jefferson: Enforcement of Alien and Sedition Acts was suspended. Expenses were cut. Size of army decreased. Expansion of Navy was cancelled. Excise taxes were repealed and fed income was limited to land sale. Smaller parcels of land were sold. (Good for small farmers). 12th Amendment. Importation of slaves ended. Napoleon sold the Louisiana Purchase to the US for $15 million (delegates were supposed to buy New Orleans). Jeff=strict interpretation of Const. Pike helped map the land. New Eng upset w/expansion of West. Tried secession. Burr was involved (“Essex Junto”??). Burr wanted to take Mexico + est. a new nation in the west. Arrested for treason. Definition of treason is narrowed by Marshall’s decision for acquittal. Jeff’s opponents, led by Randolph, were “Quids.” Accused prez of complicity in Yazoo land controversy that followed Georgia’s cession of her western lands to the fed gov. Hurt Jeff. Barbary War fought against Tripoli and Algiers. Decatur sent to defeat Muslim state. Napoleon’s war. Impression by Eng. Eng ship HMS Leopard took sailors f/the USS Chesapeake off of Chesapeake Bay. Jefferson’s Embargo followed. No trade w/foreign nations. Unpop move.
Election of 1808: Repub Madison won. His wife was Dolly.
War of 1812: Non-Importation act opened trade to all but Fr+Eng. Replaced by Macon’s Bill #2 (let prez prohibit trade w/any nation that violated our neutrality). Engs in Canada persuaded Indians to attack US. Tecumseh tried to unite Inds in NW. Harrison destroyed his village and dashed his hopes of and Ind Confederacy. Spain was Eng’s ally. 1811: War Hawks=Calhoun+Clay. Wanted war w/Eng. Madison declared war. Not doing too well. Oliver Perry made ships on Lake Erie and defeated an Eng force at Put in Bay. “Don’t Give Up the Ship.” Harrison then invaded Canada. Won Battle of Thames. Jackson got Sp garrison at Pensacola. Jackson defeated Eng at Battle of New Orleans. Treaty of Ghent: Both US and Eng gave back conquered lands.
Hartford Convention: Feds opposed war. New Eng (Fed) met at Hartford for nullification (due to increasing influence of S and W). News of success f/New Orleans humiliated Feds.
1st protective tariff passed in 1816.
Rush-Bagot Treaty: US+Eng stop maintaining fleets in the great lakes.
Adams-Onis Treaty: Sp sold Florida to US and drew Mex’s border.
“Era of Good Feelings” = 1820-30. Commerce flourished.
Depression of 1819: (p:47).
John Marshall’s Presidency: Strengthened power of fed gov. Marbury v. Madison ests the Sup Court’s power of judicial review over fed legislation. Fletcher v. Peck: State of Georgia tried to revoke a contract in land sale due to corruption. Fed gov said contract could not be revoked (1st time that state law was voided on the grounds that it violated the Const). Dartmouth College v. Woodward: Fed gov said charter couldn’t be revoked on college. Limits power of state govs to control the corporation. McCulloch v. Maryland: Md tried to tax Bank of US. Fed gov didn’t let it. Increases power of fed gov. Gibbons v. Ogden: NY gave monopoly to ferry. Fed gov said only Congress can regulate commerce.
Missouri Compromise: Would Mo. enter as sl or Free State? Many sls in area. Tallmadge of NY proposed amendment that prohibited sl in Mo. Caused debate. Maine applied for statehood. Clay’s Compromise (Mo. Comp): Maine would be free, and Mo. would be sl. All lands N of S boundary of Mo. would be Free states.
“Mountain Men” explored the NW.
Santa Fe Trail (N Mex) was open to trade and immigration.
Rob Fulton built steamboats Clermont and New Orleans. Expands river transportation.
National Road (Vir-Md) financed by Congress. Privately-owned toll roads=turnpikes. Canals=1st to get large amounts of public funding. East-W. “Packet boats” in NY helped commerce.
Sam Slater made 1st cotton-spinning mill in US. Eli Whitney came up w/principle of interchangeable parts. Helped to speed growth of mass production.
“Lowell System”: New Eng. Women would work under poor conditions w/low wages for a short period of time. “Rotating labor supply.” Need new machines to replace short amount of labor.
1st organized strike: Paterson, NJ, by kids. Early unions wanted 10-hr day. Uns hurt by depression of 1837.
Only children of wealthy went to school. Corporate academies in NE and religious schools in S. NY Free School tried Lancastrian System (older kids taught younger kids).
Jeffersonian Amers were very nationalistic.
Washington Irving=best known Amer author.
Mary Warren (revolutionary pamphleteer) wrote the History of the Revolution.
Mason Weems wrote Life of Washington. Noah Webster = Blue Backed Speller and the “American Dictionary.”
Rev War hurt churches. Pop doctrines of Enlightenment: Deism, Rationalism, Unitarianism, and Universalism. Paine’s The Age of Reason attacked Christianity. 2nd Great Awakening in 1801: “Camp Meeting” in Kentucky. Women+Blacks played a major role.
. Page 53
Alexis de Tocqueville noticed equality in Amer.
Universal white male suffrage by end of “Age of Jackson.”
Age of Jacksonian Democracy = 1829-41. “Age of the Common Man.”
Election of 1824: Property qualifications for voting were disappearing in NE. Tom Dorr (Rhode I) led a bloodless “rebellion” in trying to expand franchise. Legislatures gave vote to non-property owners. Movement for such reform was slower in S states. Legislative caucuses (upper class) usually nominated press. This yr that system failed+the members of the Electoral College were universally elected by the ppl. Candidates:Jackson,Adams,Crawford,+Clay (his “American System”: use high tariffs on imports to make int improvements). Clay was left out,+he supported Adams. Adams won, and let Clay be secretary of state. AJ upset.
Adams’s Presidency: worked on Int Improvements and Native Amers. Unpop policies. AJ opposition. (p:54). Cong passed resolution for high protective trfs (1928). Very unpop in South. S called it the “tariff of abominations.” John Calhoun backed nullification. Calhoun’s theory=“concurrent majority.”
Election of 1928: J. Adams’s party= “National Repubs.” Jackson’s party= “Democratic Repubs.” Lots of mudslinging. Jackson won the election.
AJ’s presidency: “Kitchen Cabinet.” Common man. Favored a “spoils system.” Did more vetoing then previous prezs. Vetoed Maysville Rd because it was in only 1 state.
AJ hated Inds. Indian Removal Act provided fed enforcement of removal of Inds to W of Miss R. Cherokee Ntn in Georgia. Claimed indep. Sup Crt backed Cherokee Nation in Worcester v. Georgia. AJ refused to enforce Crt’s decision. Trail of Tears: forced removal of Cherokees to West.
Availability of cheap land caused sectional differences. W+S supported cheap land sale in W. NE hated it (it would drain workers, who would move west). Rob Hayne of S. Carolina supported cheap land. Hayne suggested null. Webster changed the debate of cheap land into issue of state’s rights vs. fed gov. Webster=pro-fed gov. Calhoun pissed off w/trf of 1832. Mrs. Calhoun didn’t treat Mrs. Eaton (friend of AJ) well. When AJ supported higher trf, Calh openly supported null in Ordinance of Null. Cal didn’t let shippers in SC collect trfs. AJ’s Force Bill made fed troops forcefully collect trfs. AJ brought trf down.
. Page 56 .
Bank of US: Nicholas Biddle. Big and powerful. AJ wanted to destroy the bank. Clay and Webster promoted a bill to recharter the bank. Congress passed the recharter bill, but AJ vetoed it. AJ beat Clay in election of 1832. AJ removed fed gov deposits f/bank, and gave it to the small “pet banks.” Biddle called in loans. A financial recession resulted.
Panic of 1837: Biddle gave back loans, and credit policies were relaxed. Inflation. Gov sold land at low prices. AJ wanted to distribute surplus funds (more inflation).
AJ’s Specie Circular: Hard money required to buy land. Spec Cir hurt economy.
Van Buren (Jacksonian) = Old Kinderhook. Inherited problems when he became prez. Spent time on dealing w/depression left by the death of the 2nd Bank. Persuaded Congress to est an Indep Treasury.
Election of 1840: Whigs nominate Harrison (“Old Tippecanoe”, log cabins). Dems nominate Van Buren. Many voters. Whigs criticized panic. Harrison won, and then died.
Age of Jackson=beginning of modern party system. AJ dominated gov (“King Andrew”).
AJ was pro-state’s rights. Chief Justice Taney, in the case of Charles River Bridge, ruled that a state could revoke a grant of monopoly if the original grant wasn’t in the best interests of the community. Diff f/Dartmouth College vs. Woodward.
Party Philosophies: (See p:58).
Alexis de Tocqueville wrote Democracy in America.
Instability in 1840. Movement toward reform and a desire for order. Class distinctions. Mobs and violence. Sources of Reform: Romanticism=goodness in man. Rom=rationality.
Literature: James F. Cooper (Leatherstocking Tales), Walt Whitman (Leaves of Grass), Henry Longfellow (Evangeline, Hiawatha), Herman Melville (Typee, Billy Budd, Moby Dick), Francis Parkman (Montcalm and Wolfe, The Oregon Trail), James R. Lowell (Bigelow Papers, Commemoration Ode), Nathaniel Hawthorne (The Scarlet Letter, Blithedale Romance), Edgar Allen Poe (The Raven, Tamerlane).
. Page 59 .
Hudson River School=Painters. Catlin painted Indians. Audubon painted animals.
Theater was condemned by the church.
Transcendentalism started in Concord, Mass. Strove for emotional understanding, attain unity w/God w/o help of church, which was seen as reactionary and stifling to self-expression. Emerson wrote “Nature” and “Self-Reliance.” Thoreau (Walden) preached civil disobedience to protest unjust laws.
Cooperative community: attempt to improve the life of common man in face of industrialization.
Brook Farm, Mass: 1st commune.
New Harmony, Indiana, founded by Rob Owen, of New Lanark experiment in Wales. Attacked religion, marriage, and private property.
Nashoba in Memphis, Tennessee, est by Frances Wright, was for freed sls.
Oneida Community in NY was based on free love and open marriages.
Shakers directed by Ann Lee. Socialistic. Sexual equality and social discipline.
Amana Community, Iowa, was socialistic. Rigid society.
Smith organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Later Day Saints. Polygamy. Moved to Mo, then Nauvoo, Il, then to Great Salt Lake by leader, Young. Organized+centrally controlled. Perfectibility.
Evangelist Finney, through his “social gospel” offered salvation for all.
Temperance was supported by Protestants, but opposed by Catholics. Higher ed: (see p:61).
Board of Ed leaders=Horace Mann & Henry Barnard. Movement picked up momentum in 1830’s.
Dorothea Dix led fight for institutions that treated the mentally ill. Auburn, NY, was 1st prison to rehabilitate instead of punish. Seneca Falls, NY: “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions”=beginning of feminist movement. Grimke sisters, Stanton, and Stowe were in meetings. Connected to abolitionism?
Some sls colonized Liberia. Garrison (author of The Liberator) advocated total and immediate emancipation. Founded New Eng Anti-Slavery Society and Amer Antislavery Society. Weld advocated gradual emancipation. Fred Douglas wrote the North Star. Lovejoy was an abolitionist. Anti-slavery movement split in 2: Garrison’s radicals, + moderates who favored moral suasion + petitions to Congress. Liberty party (1st anti-slavery party) was anti-expansion of slavery. Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
Golden age of oration + speeches. Many women bought magazines. Expanding W is more like the N then the S. W=fastest-growing region. Av birth rate decreased. Ims increased f/1815-37. Mott and Truth were women who fought for women’s rights. “Jim Crow” laws separated blacks f/whites.
By 1850, ind output exceeded agric output. Whitney came up w/idea of interchangeable parts. Elias Howe invented the sewing machine. Sam Morse invented the new electric telegraph.
The Rise of Unions: (See p:64).
Farm + Ind developed simultaneously. McCormick invented the mechanical reaper. John Deere made the steel plow. Jerome Case made the threshing machine. Shifting emphasis f/corn to small grain production. Farming for interntln market was feasible. Farmers wanted free land f/gov. Agricult colleges were provided by the Homestead and Morrill bills during the Civil War.
Coastal sailing ships practiced monopoly before railrds. Household labor system breaking down.
S states experienced growth. Econ grew more productive and prosperous. Plantation system used slaves. “The S grew, but it did not develop.” Shift in pop + production f/upper S–lower S due to cotton.
About 1/3 of S pop didn’t even own sls at all. ½ of sl-owning families had fewer then 6 sls. 12% owned
20 or more. Dominated politics and the social life.
Yeoman Farmers=largest group. Small white farmers. Usually made their own food. Major crop was corn (more valuable then cotton). The Poor Whites=“crackers” or “sandhillers.” (See p:66). Large plantations that grew cotton, sugar, or tobacco used the gang system (white overseers directed black drivers, and supervised large groups of workers). In rice and small farms, sls were assigned specific tasks. Urban sl in S disappeared. Illegalization of sl imports encouraged internal sl trade.
Leaders of Slave (sl) revolts: Prosser, Vesey, and Nat Turner.
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When the Civil War erupted, N had 81% of the factory capacity in the US. Manufacturing (see p:68). An organized network of commerce never developed in S. S depended on N bankers and businessmen. Wanted reform. James DeBow’s Review advocated commercial development and agricult diversification. Plantation System was retarding development. Cotton=profitable. Since most of the planter’s capital was tied up in land and slaves, there was little left to invest in commerce or manufacturing. Value system of the S ppl, who put great store in traditional rural ideals.
Southern Women: had fewer opportunities at anything but home life then N women. Operated farm. Ed was rare. Bible used in order to justify sl. Sci. S became a closed society. Poe and Gilmore=S writers. S members of the house pushed for the “gag rule,” which forbade any discussion on the q of sl on the floor of the House. In effect until 1844. Calhoun’s “concurrent majority”=dual presidency would insure a S indep of N dominance, and would keep majority rule at bay. Beginning in 1837, conventions were held in S to figure out ways to avoid the N. Nationalism followed the War of 1812.
Reform impulse in 1830’s.
Jim Bridges=“mountain man.” Jedediah Smith mapped territory. John J. Astor est a fur post at Columbia Riv he named Astoria,+challenged Eng’s claim to NW. He lobbied Cong to pass trade restrictions against Eng furs,+eventually became 1st Amer millionaire f/the profits of Amer Fur Company.
Adams-Onis treaty est boarder btwn Cali + Mex. It also sold Florida to the US
Diff nations agreed to joint control of Oregon territory at 1.st Missionaries went to Oregon and wrote back to the E about how wonderful Or was. “Oregon Fever.” Settlers went to Shangri-La. US wanted Tex f/Mex. US renounced control of Tex in Adams-Onis Treaty. Mex refused, but invited Ims. Mex began to restrict im+raise taxes. Tex claimed indep. Santa Anna marched N and beat the Amers. Sam Houston beat Anna at San Jacinto, and Mex was forced to let Tex go. Houston asked US for recognition + annexation. AJ feared the revival of the sl issue. He also feared war w/Mex. So he did nothing. Fr + Eng concluded trade agreements w/Tex. Amers move to New Mex+Cali. Dems favored force to extend US’s borders. Whigs favored more peaceful means. Some Whigs (like Clay) feared expansion due to sl issue.
Harrison got all his advice f/Clay. Harrison replaced by Tyler. Whigs were upset. Tried to impeach Tyler. Whigs formed a coherent pol party. Preemption Act allowed settlers who had squatted on unsurveyed fed lands 1st chance to buy the land at low prices. The Webster-Ashburton Treaty: (see p:72).
Houston made show of having good relations w/Eng. S feared Eng would abolish slavery in Tex.
John O’Sullivan: “Amer has manifest destiny to overspread the continent.”
Calhoun negotiated an annexation treaty w/Tex. Senate rejected the treaty.
Election of 1844: Dem=Van Buren. Whig=Clay. Both privately agreed not to address the Tex issue. Dems replace Van Buren w/James Polk (called “Old Hickory,” he was a Jacksonian who opposed protective trfs+a ntnl bank). Favored expansion. Wanted Tex+Oregon. Clay opposed Tex annex. He began to equivocate. Liberty Party=Birney. Before Tyler’s presidency ended, Ty annexed Tex. Polk won election.
Polk favored low revenue-only tariffs. Passed Walker Tariff. Opposed ntnl bank.
Most ppl who went to Or settled in the Willamette Valley. Dems wanted ownership of Or. Polk wanted Tex? Eng wanted Puget Sound. Oregon Treaty: US-Canada boundary E of Rockies was extended to the Pacific, thus securing Puget Sound and shared use of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
Some Mormons went to Cali. Mormons founded the Mormon Republic of Deseret (in Cali). Deseret was annexed by US w/Tex. Friction w/Fed gov. Young was governor, but was replaced by prez Buchanan w/a non-Mormon. Buchanan sent in army. Mormon militia resisted. “Mormon War.”
The Coming of War w/Mex: (See p:75).
The Mexican War: Various sentiments about Mex War. 3-pronged attack. 1) Advance through New Mex+into Cali under Stephen Kearny. (3rd para). 2) Navy under John Sloat seized Monterey and declared Cali to be part of the US. Rob Stockton joined w/Kearny to defeat Mex at Battle of San Gabriel and complete conquest of Cali. 3) (See 5th para to end).
The Wilmot Proviso: Proposed by David Wilmot. Said that “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist” in any territory to be acquired f/Mex. Reintroduced over + over. S opposed Wilmot Prov (WP), and N supported it.
4 views on slavery in new territories.
1) S expressed by Calhoun. Said territories weren’t property of US fed gov, but of the states together, and said Cong couldn’t strip ppl of their “property” (sls).
2) Anti-Slavery N looked at NW ordinance + Mo. Compromise. Said Cong could prohibit slavery in new territory.
3) Polk + moderate S: extend Mo. Comp line to Pacific.
4) N Dems (Lewis Case + Stephen Douglas) backed “squatter sovereignty” (“pop sov”).
Election of 1848: Dems nominate Lewis Cass. Mid-of-rd-pop sov. Whigs nominate Zach Taylor. No party took a position on sl. Anti-sl (a-s) ppl formed Conscience Whigs and Barnburner Dems. United to form Free Soil Party. Nominated Van Buren. Taylor won election.
Gold discovered at Sutter’s Mill, Cali in 1848. 49ers. Lawless. Cali wanted admission as a state. Cali wanted to be admitted as an a-s state. Crisis back E. Taylor opposed spread of sl. A-s Cali would make S out#ed in House. Friction btwn Tex+New Mex (possibly a-s in future) over disputed land. S upset w/ Underground rd. N upset w/sl markets in Wash DC. S held a convention at Nashville: propose ways of protecting S interests.
Clay came up w/Compromise of 1850:
For N: Cali would be a-s. Land btwn Tex + New Mex would go to NM. NM + Utah would do pop sov. Sl trade abolished in Wash DC.
For S: Tougher Fugitive sl Law. Fed gov would pay Tex $ pre-annex debt. Cong would declare that it didn’t have jurisdiction over the interstate sl trade, and Cong would promise not to abolish sl itself in Wash DC. Clay called for “mutual forbearance.” Webster abandoned his opposition to sl exten to support the Compromise. Taylor opposed Comp. Comp opposed by Will Seward, who spoke of a “higher law” than the Const, forbidding the spread of sl. Comp opposed by Calhoun. General harmony followed ratification of the Comp.
Taylor died + replaced by Millard Fillmore (proponent of the Comp). Stephen Douglas broke the compromise into small pieces, and pushed each piece through Cong, gradually.
Election of 1852: Dems nominate Franklin Pierce. Whigs nominate Winfield Scott. Pierce won. Whigs beginning to break up into factions. Hale (Free Soil) lost badly.
Pierce said a new era of sectional peace was here. Sought to distract ntn’s attention f/sl-a program of foreign econ + territorial expansion called “Young Amer.” Perry led navy to Tokyo Bay to open Amer diplomacy+Commerce. Reciprocity Treatypens Can to more US trade. Pierce wanted to annex Hawaii + land f/Mex+Sp+Cuba. Got Gadsden Purchase f/Mex (trans-continental railrd). Pierce got Ostend Manifesto (urges military seizure of Cuba if Sp remain intransigent). “A N man w/S principles.” A-s N upset w/Pierce.
Econ Growth. Rise of railrds. Both small and large plantations in S prospered during the 1850s.
Amer’s 2nd 2-party system started in 1830s. Whig party factionalizing (nativism and sl). Know-Nothing Party. (3rd para/p:82). Tension over Fug S Law. Run-away sls in N denied due process.
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Harriet Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin out of anger of the FS Law.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act: Stephen Douglas introduced a bill in Cong to organize the area W of Mo and Iowa as the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. Good for trans-continental railrd. Atchison (S) told Douglas to include in the bill the repeal of the Mo Compromise (which banned sl in the areas in q) and a provision that sl in the newly organized territories be decided by pop sov (ps).
Repub Party: N upset w/Kansas-Nebraska Act (K-N). N Dems left the party and joined by former Whigs and K-Ns in the newly created Repub Party. Rep party believed that sl should be banned f/all of the nation’s territories, confined to the states where it already existed, and allowed to spread no further.
N+S send ppl to Kansas to vote on sl. N forms the New Eng Emigrant Aid Company to promote settlement of a-s ppl in Ka. Most in Ka were mid Wers who opposed the spread of sl + who wanted to find good farm land. Border ruffians, pro-slavery (p-s) crossed the border and voted p-s. P-s gov in Ka formed. A-s Ka denounced p-s gov. “Bleeding Ka.” Guerilla war. Ruffians sacked a-s town of Lawrence. John Brown killed 5 unarmed men + boys at a p-s settlement on Pottowatomie Creek. (3rd real para on p:84).
Election of 1856: Dems nominate James Buchanan. K-Ns nominate Millard Fillmore. Reps nominate John Fremont. “Pathfinder.” Reps: high trfs, free W homesteads for ppl,+no spread of sl. “Free Soil, Free Men, and Fremont.” Buchanan won. Supported in S.
The Dred Scott Case:Dred Scott v. Sanford. Mo sl Scott encouraged to sue for his freedom on the basis that his owner took him for a stay of several yrs in a free state. R Taney (p-s) ruled not only hat Scott had no standing to sue in fed court, but also that temporary residence in a free state, even for several yrs, didn’t make a sl free, and that the Mo Comp had been unconst all along because Cong didn’t have the authority to exclude sl f/any territory whatsoever. Nor could state govs prohibit sl. N suspected conspiracy.
P-s gov in Ka arranged for a p-s const convention to meet in Lecompton. Const allowed sl. Ka gov petitions Cong for admission to the Union as a p-s state. Buchanan backed the Lec (p-s) Const. Douglas broke w/the administration to oppose it. Senate approved the Lec const, but House said that Ka should have a chance to vote on the document. Voters went against the Lec Const. Ka was admitted as a free state.
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The Panic of 1857: short. 3 causes. 1) Yrs of over speculation in railrds + land. 2) Faulty banking practices. 3) An interruption in the flow of Eur capital into Amer as a result of the Crimean War. N. blamed panic on low tariffs. S suffered less then N.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Lincoln (AL) opposed Douglas (Das). AL stressed that Das’s doctrine of pop sov failed to recognize sl for the moral wrong it was. Das:“Guiding principle=Dem.” (Last para/
p:86). Das won reelection to the senate. (1st para/p:87). AL strengthened the Rep Party.
John Brown seized the fed arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Vir. Supported by “Secret Six” (a group of N abols). Brown planed to arm sls and spread his uprising across the S. Captured by Lee. Brown hanged.
S sl owners feared that non-sl owners would become abols. This fear was touched on by a book, The Impending Crisis in the South, by Hinton Helper. Argues that sl was econ harmful to S + that it enriched the planter at the expense of the yeoman farmer. S upset. Reps were the most numerous party in the House. John Sherman (Rep) endorsed Helper’s book. (Last para on p:87).
The Election of 18602nd para/section). S Dems nominate John Breckinridge. Rest of the Dem party nominated Douglas (pop sov). Const Union Party nominated John Bell on a platform that sidestepped the issues and called simply for the Const, the Union, and the laws. Reps nomin Lincoln (AL). Das made 1st ntn-wide speaking tour. Brec backed by the S. Bell (border states). AL (N). AL won the election.
AL said that he wouldn’t disturb sl where it existed. S didn’t believe him. On Dec 20, 1860, SC declared itself out of the Union. Other states followed. Diff states met in Montgomery, Alabama,+declared to be the Confederate States of Amer. Jefferson Davis=pres. Made a const. Some diffs w/original US const. (p:89). Buchanan did nothing. John Crittenden strove for a compromise that would preserve the Un. Comp proposal centered on the passage of a const amendment forever prohibiting fed meddling w/sl and as well as the extension of the Mo Comp to the Pacific, w/sl protected in the territories S of it. AL rejected it.
Two Fed forts in S: Ford Pickens, Florida, and Ford Sumter, S Carol. Anderson (Sumter) told Lin that supplies were low. S General Beauregard attacked Sumt. Lin declared insurrection. Vir, Tenn., N Carol, and Arkansas declared secession. Remaining states that stayed w/un but were sl: Del, Ken, Maryland, and Mo. Md was going to secede, but didn’t. Same w/Mo.
N strengths: wealthy, industrial, higher pop, im, control of US Navy, good system of railrds.
S strengths: vast in size, on the defensive side, good generals (Rob Lee, Johnston, Scott). Jefferson Davis seemed like a good prez. He wasn’t a good general, although he was politically experienced, unlike Lin.
Both N+S were enthusiastic. Richmond: S Cap. N general McDowell lost at 1st battle of Bull Run (“Battle of Manassas”).
Winfield Scott proposed the Anaconda Plan:Naval blockade. Take Miss Riv, split S in 2, and let pro-un ppl take over S. Lin liked all but the last pt. N Navy leader Welles enforced a blockade. N navy leader Farragut took New Orleans. Lin wanted to attack S f/all sides. He needed good generals.
The Union Preserved: (See Section. It goes f/p:92-97).
There was time of difficult adjustments during Reconstruction (Rec) in S. Recently freed sls were confused. Weren’t adjusted to a life of freedom. Cong made the Freedman’s Bureau to provide food, clothing, and ed for recently freed sls. N needed to restore the loyal govs in the seceded states.
Lin’s 10% Plan: S could take an oath promising future loyalty to the Union and acceptance to an end to sl. When the # of those ppl reached 10% in any state, a loyal gov could be formed by those who took the oath. Radical Reps (like Stevens) thought that Lin’s plan didn’t punish S. Loyal S states were denied rep in Cong and Electoral College in elect of 1864.
Rad Reps made Wade-Davis bill: A majority must swear an “ironclad” oath stating they were loyal and had never been disloyal. S states must give blacks the vote. If states didn’t swear ironclad, then Cong wouldn’t recognize their govs. Lin went against the W-Davis bill w/a “pocked veto.”
Johnson:followed Lin’s policies. 13thAmendment. S must renounce secession. S states made Black Codes, which imposed restrictions on the rights of blacks.
Foreign Policy under Johnson: Napoleon III invades Mex during Civil War. Goes against Monroe Doctrine. Johnson and Secretary of State Seward took steps. Sheridan went to Rio Grande w/army. Juarez recognized by US. Nap w/drew f/Mex. Russia asked Seward if he wanted to buy Alaska. Seward was an expansionist. “Seward’s Folly”: purchase of Alaska in 1867.
Johnson had a mild plan of Rec. Some S states refused to repudiate the Confederate debt and ratify the 13th Amendment. Refused to let blacks vote, the passage of black codes, and the election of former confederates made Rads want to impose harsh rule on the S. Cong passed a Civil Rights Act and extended the authority of the Freedman’s Bureau. (1st para/p:100). Tenn=only state to back Cong in S. Rad Cong passed the Military Rec Act. Divided S in to five military districts. (3rd para/p:100). Rad Rep Cong passed the Army Act. Reduced prez’s control over the Army. Rads got cooperation of the Army. Cong passed the Tenure of Office Act, forbidding Johnson to dismiss Cabinet members w/o the Senate’s permission. He went against it, and was almost removed f/office.
Elec of 1868:Reps endorsed Radical Rec. Nominated Ulysses S. Grant. His views were unknown. Dems nom Horatio Seymour. Dems mildly criticized the excesses of Rad Rec. Wanted greenbacks. Grant won. 15th Amendment passed. Gives vote to Blacks? Property values drop in S. S econ very poor after war. Pol results were less long-lived but more disturbing to S. S complained of corruption in govs sustained by fed troops and composed of “carpetbaggers, “scalawags” (S name for Ns who came to the S to participate in Rec govs and for s who supported Rec govs) and freed sls.
Under Rec govs: Social programs. Higher taxes+growing state debts. Union League: an organization used by S reps to control the black vote. Goal of S: “redemption” (the end of rec govs). S whites were successful in all but three states. Rec ended primarily because the N lost interest. Panic of 1873. Stevens and Sumber(?) were rads. They died.
Corruption under Grant: Had no firm pol positions. Gr had faith in dishonest ppl. (See p:102 for scandals). Reps who were pissed at scandals and vindictive Rec policies formed the Liberal Reps. Favored sectional harmony and hard money and laissez-faire. Nominated Horace Greeley for prez. Also nominated by the Dems. Defeated by Grant in elect of 1872.
Econ issues under Grant: poor econ. Deflation vs inflation. Debtors favored inflation through use of greenbacks. Panic of 1873. Brought on by over expansive tendencies of railrd and businessmen during the immediate post-war boom. Panic triggered by econ downturns in Eur and by the failure of Jay Cooke and Company. Cong authorized new issues of Greenbacks, but Gr vetoed it. Silver caused inflation. Pro-inflation called demonetization of silver the “Crime of ’73.” Cong wanted to retire greenbacks (and use
gold standard). (See last 3 paras of section on p:103).
Election of 1876: Dems campaign against corruption. Nom Tilden (broke Tweed pol machine of NYC). Reps nom Hayes. Like Tilden, Hayes backed hard $+civil service reform. Opposed gov reg of econ. Reps: “Waving the bloody shirt”=vote for Reps to get back at S. Fraud used by both Reps and Dems. Hayes won the elec. Compromise of 1877: Hayes promised to show consideration for S interests, end Rec, and w/draw the remaining Fed troops f/the S in exchange for Dem acquiescence in the election.
“Gilded Age’: 1870s and 90s. US=world’s leading ind + agric producer. Weak executive. Strong legislature by Cong and Rep Party.
Compromise of 1877: S Dems acceptance of Hayes’ Rep presidency, troops taken f/S. (S Carol, Fl and Louisiana). Gov no longer committed to Af-Amer equality.
Rep factions: (See p:105).
Election of 1880: Garfield (Rep) beat Dem Hancock. Gar shot. Arthur took his place. Arthur endorsed reform of the pol spoils system by supporting the passage of the Pendleton Act which est open competitive exams for civil service positions.
Greenback-Labor Party: backed inflation of farm prices. Weaver backed pub control and reg of private enterprises like railrds.
Development of modern ind by A. Carnegie. Tom Edison made electricity. Rockefeller controlled 95% of ntn’s oil refineries. Textiles in S. Birmingham, Alabama, was S’s leading steel producer. Duke family made cigarettes. An elite class grew wealthy, as others suffered.
Social Darwinism: (See p:106).
Labor unrest. Rail rd strike in 1877. Unemp and salary reduction caused class conflict. Hayes used fed troops to restore order after workers were killed. The Knights of Labor opened its membership to not only white native Amers but ims, women, and Blacks. Hurt by Haymarket Riot in Chicago.
Agrarian discontent expressed through Ntnl Grange and the Farmers’ Alliances. Many farmers went in debt during the war. High agric prices during war dropped during peace. Fs wanted inflation, higher farm prices, silver and gold bimetallism, and reg of railrds.
Urbanization. Elevator invented by Elisha Otis. Ims. Cities segregated by ethnic group, social class, and race. City govs developed the responsibility of ims for pol support.
Social Gospel: (See p:107).
Ed was expanded.
Af-Amer leaders: Booker Wash was prez of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Taught Af-Amers w/a mission to encourage self-respect and econ equality of the races.
Henry George………………Progress and Poverty
Lew Wallace………………..Ben Hur
Mark Twain………………...The Gilded Age, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
Henry James………………..Daisy Miller, Portrait of a Young Lady
Foreign Relations: “new imperialism”. Unlike Eur territorial colonialist, the US preferred market expansion w/o the pol liability of military occupation. Hayes recognized the gov of Dias in Mex. “Pan Americanism.” Blaine created the Interntnl Bureau of Amer Republics to promote customs union of trade and pol stability of the W Hemisphere. Pan Amer Union formed, and Organization of Amer States.
Mediation of Border Disputes: (See p:108).
US was hostile to Fr Panama Canal project. US had treaty w/Samoa giving the US trading rights and a naval base at Pago Pago. US=1st ntn to have a treaty granting tariff autonomy to Jap, and set a precedent for ending the practice by W ntns of controlling customs house collections in Asian states. Shufeldt opened trade and diplomatic relations w/the Hermit Kingdom (Korea).
Native Amers: Gold discovered in S. Dakota. Led to Sioux War. Apache in Arizona fought. Inds had to live on isolated reservations. Helen Hunt wrote A Century of Dishonor.
Rise in big monopoly capitalism. Most Amers wanted to share in the profits. Only Dem to be elected during Gilded Age was Grover Cleveland.
Election of 1884: Reps nominate Blaine. Dems nominate Cleve. (Last para/p:109).
Presidential Succession Act: (See p:110).
Cleve said exec appointments were his power and not that of the Senate. Fist time since Johnson that pres strengthened the indep of his office. Large corps prospered. Robber barons (Rockefeller, Morgan, Swift in meat processing, Carnegie, and Harriman in railrds).
Interstate Commerce Act: Ppl demanded state reg of the railway ind. Sup Court ruled individual state laws unconst in the Wabash Case (only Cong can control interstate commerce). Interstate Commerce Act was passed. A commission est to oversee fair and just practices in rail rd ind.
Low farm prices. Lack of sufficient silver currency. Farmers told gov about their grievances.
Amer Federation of Labor: Sam Gompers and Strasser. Not influenced by Marxism. Militant. Strikes. AFL didn’t intend violent rev or pol radicalism.
Sci Management: Frederick Taylor gave rise to efficiency experts and separate class of managers in ind manufacturing.
Linotype Machine (Otto Mergenthaler) cut printing costs. Press associations did well. Joseph Pulitzer made the New York World. Colleges and Universities expanded.
Women’s Colleges: (See p:111).
Michelson helped contribute to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. 1st Amer to win the Nobel prize. Ely studied ethical implications of econ problems. (1st para/p:112).
Romanticism declined. Howell wrote The Rise of Silas Lapham. Henry James wrote The Bostonians. Painters: Eakins, Cassatt, Homer, Whistler.
US not really isolationist in 1880s. US Naval War College est in Newport, Rhode I.
Europe: (See p:112). US participated in the Berlin Conference concerning trade in the Congo. US also took part in the Third Iterntnl Red Cross Conference. US passed a law suspending Chinese im for 10 yrs. US got Pearl Harbor. US signed a short-lived pact w/Nicaragua for joint ownership of the isthmian canal in Central Amer. Protective tariffs. Ntnl politics became more controversial and turbulent.
Election of 1888: Harrison beat Cleve. Har protected Amer business interests w/protective tariffs. Reps were in control. Reed controlled the House. Force Bill (1890). Anti-monopoly. Protective tariffs. Reciprocal trade.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Trusts were subject to fed persecution if they were found to be combination or conspiracies in restraint of trade.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act: This act created inflation and lowered gold reserves.
McKinley Tariff: Protective tariff promised by Reps, and introduced by Mc. Ind and agric goods. Let pres retaliate against ntns that discriminated against US products, and reward ntns that opened their markets to Amer goods. Ppl didn’t like McKinley Tariff. Billion $ budget hurt gov’s $ supply.
Social and Cultural Developments: (See p:114+5). Blaine supported econ expansionism. He opposed US military intervention in the W hemisphere. His policies were like those of Monroe and John Q. Adams. Fred Douglas advised Blaine as US minister to Haiti.
Chilean Rev: (See p:115). Allen promoted peaceful Amer investment and trade w/Korea. Liliuokalani resisted Amer attempts to promote a protectorate over Hawaii.
Theoretical Works: (See p:116).
Death of 11 Itals in US hurt relations btwn US + It.
Dems nominate Cleveland. Dems win. Ppl didn’t like the McKinley Tariff. Cleve was conservative. Backed gold standard. Backed by businesses.
Ppl’s Party (Populist) nominated Weaver. Backed by Donnally, Watson, Simpson, farms. Wanted coalition w/urban workers and mid class. Coin silver+gold at ratio of 16/1. Fed loans to farms. Postal savings banks. Pub ownership of railrds. Phones. Prohibition of alien land ownership. Im restriction. 8 hr workday. 6-yr term for pres. Direct elect. Secret ballot. Pops were reformers.
Cleve tried to limit the outflow of gold reserves by asking Cong to repeal the Sherman Silver Act which provided notes redemptive in either gold or silver. Cong repealed it. Dems split over the issue.
Election of 1896: Reps nominate McKinley. Maintain gold standard and prot trfs. Dems nomin Bryan. Called for similar things as the Populists: coinage of silver fraction, condemned monopolies, protect tariffs, and anti-un courts, criticism of the Sup Court removal of income tax f/Wilson-Gorman tariff bill. Bryan: “Crucified upon a cross of gold.” Pop party also nominated Bryan. McK won elect. Bryan had challenged business and the Amer system. McK told ppl they would be unemp if Bryan was elect.
The 1890s was a period of depression and labor agitation.
Homestead Strike: Carnegie Steal. Carnegie killed some strikers.
Depression of 1893: Fed deficit. W/drawal of Eng investments f/Amer. Outward transfer of gold. Ntnl Cordage Company was bankrupt. Recovery helped by war.
March of Unemp: Pop Coxey led March for Unemp asking gov for relief. Gov arrested him.
Pullman Strike: Debs’ Amer Railway Un strike. Pres Cleve broke strike w/violence.
Wilson-Gorman Tariff: protective tariff. Didn’t help.
Dingley Tariff: raises protection to new heights for things.
Literature of 1890s: Ward (The Psychic Factors of Civilization), Will Howell (A Hazard of New Fortunes) Stephen Crane (Maggie, A Girl of the Streets; The Red Badge of Courage), Edward Bellamy (Looking Backward), Will James (Principles of Psychology). Anti-Saloon League was formed.
Im declined during the Dep. Home Study courses of the Chautauqua Movement in NY.
Chicago World’s Fair: Beautified cities. Public parks.
Cuba and Spain: Amers invested in Cu econ. McK promised to stabilize the situation in Cu. Yellow journalism+ntnlism. TR supported the Amer military intervention. McK was cautious.
Eng and Venezuela: border dispute. Gold. US supported Eng when E promised to respect Mon D.
Sino-Ja War: (1st para/p:120). Cleve refused to annex Hawaii. McK annexed it.
US supported govs of Nicar and Brazil. Gresham, Olney, and Sherman backed Blaine’s Pa Amer.
Will Stead predicted US would be world leader in The Americanization of the World.
T Roosevelt= “1st progressive prez.”
Election of 1900: (Last para/p:120). Fading pops nominated Barker. Pro-inflation. Socialist Dem Party nominated Debs. Prohibition Party nominated Woolley.
War w/Sp helped econ. T.R. promised a “square deal.” Destruction of illegal monopolies.
Fed Bankruptcy Act: Reformed+standardized procedures for bankruptcy, along w/creditor responsibilities.
Erdman Act, Currency Act: (See p:121).
Joe Pulitzer’s New York World and Hearst’s New York Journal had “Yellow Journalism.”
Sp minister (de Lôme) offended McK. Battleship U.S.S. Maine was sunk in Havana harbor.
Literature: Thorstein Veblen (Theory of the Leisure Class) Jacob Riis (How the Other Half Lives) Frank Norris (McTeague, The Octopus, condemned monopolies).
Reasons for war: loss of markets, threats to Amers in Cu, and Cu Rev. Proctor investigated situation in Cu. McK’s Ultimatum: tells Sp to leave Cu alone. Cu indep: “Teller Amendment.”
Treaty of Paris: Will Day secured Cu indep. Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam to US.
Philippines Insurrection: (See p:123). US took Wake island.
China: (See p:124).
Boxer Rebellion: Rebels criticize Ch’s concessions to Western ntns.
Platt Amendment: Cu is protectorate of US. Cu can’t make treaties w/other ntns, contract excessive public debt. Cu had to 1) let US preserve order 2) Lease naval base for 99 yrs at Guantanamo Bay to US.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty: US+Eng. To build jointly an isthmian canal. US makes canal. Open to all.
Insular Cases: Constitutional rights don’t extend to territorial possessions.
T.R. made bipartisan coalition of liberal reformers. Restrain monopolies and promote competition. T.R. enforced the Sherman AntiTrust Act. Tex removes its corrupt mayor. Ppl rebuilt destroyed town of Galveston. Commission form of Gov (See p:125). State leaders: La Follette, Cummins, Hughes, Cox, Johnson, Wren, Beveridge, Wilson. City Reformers: Mitchell, Johnson, Baker, Pingree, Toledo, Folk.
Election of 1904: TR didn’t want to interfere w/monetary policy or trfs. Dems nominate Parker. Dems endorse TR’s trust busting. Dems accept gold standards.
Hepburn Act: More ppl in ICC. (See p:126). Pure Food and Drug Act: Foods must be labeled. Meat Inspection Act: Fed sanitary regulations and inspection on mean. Immunity of Witness Act: Corp officials couldn’t make a plea for immunity to avoid testifying in cases dealing w/their corp’s illegal activities. Conservation Laws: Est Ntnl Conservation Commission to oversee ntn’s resources.
Econ:Under TR: Knox brought suit against the N. Securities Company. Dept of Commerce and Labor:addresses concerns of business+labor. Bureau of Corps investigated illegal activities of corps. Coal Strike:TR forced negotiations btwn United Mine Workers+the owners. 1st time gov didn’t back business. Panic of 1907:poor bank speculations, lack of flexible $, and conservative gold standard caused it. Fed Reserves System is made. St. Louis World’s Fair: celebrate Louisiana Purchase. Let Asian ntns trade w/US.
Social+Cultural Devpts: Ppl called for gender equality in work force (Oregon Ten Hour Law), end to racial segregation (NAACP), child labor laws, prison reform, reg of stock market, direct elec of sen.
Muckrakers: McClure’s, Collier’s, Cosmopolitan, and Everybody’s. (Last para/p:127).
Literature:Baker (Following the Color Ling), Spargo (The Bitter Cry of the Children), Hunder (Poverty), Hendrick (The Story of Life Insurance), Dreiser (The Financier), Lewis (The Boss), London (Call of the Wild, Iron Heel, War of the Classes), White (A Certain Rich Man), Croly (The Promise of Amer Life).
Wright bros made 1st air flight in N Carol.
Foreign Rltns:Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty:gave US control of Canal Zone in Panama. US reserves right to intervene in Lat Am. US intervenes in Haiti, Ven, Dom Rep, Nicaragua, and Cuba. Rio de Janeiro Conference:Elihu Root promotes goodwill w/Lat Am. TR moves f/Big St dip to $ Dip. School segregation in Cali w/Chinese ppl. Russo-Ja War: Ja won war w/Amer help. TR negotiated Treaty of Portsmouth. Jap upset w/treaty. Taft-Katsura Memo: US+Ja promise Open Door in Ch. Ja recognizes Am control of Philip and US gave Ja protectorate over Korea. Gentleman’s Agreement: Ja agrees to restrict im of unskilled Jas to US. TR sent Great White Fleet to Ja+Ch. Algeciras Conference: Eur+US guarantee for Morocco = opportunity of trade. Conf makes tension btwn Ge+Fr. 2nd Hague Conf: discuss disarmament+creation of interntnl court of justice. Ban on use of military force for collection of foreign debts. (Last para/p:129).
Elec of 1908: Reps nomin Taft. Calls for continuation of anti-trust enforcement and other reforms. Calls for a lower tariff. Dems nomin Bryan. Anti-mons+tariffs. Taft won. AFL backed Bryan. Alliance btwn organized labor+Dem. Taft goals:continue trust busting+Reconcile conservatives+reformers in Rep Party. Taft named Wickersham to bust the trusts. Rep party splitting: conservatives+progressives over trfs, conservation, and dictatorial power of Cannon. Taft unable to stop rifting. Rep progs join Dems to eliminate Cannon. Taft backs Can. Pinchot criticized Ballinger (sold lands). Taft backs Ball. 16th Amend: a Graduated income tax. Mann-Elins Act: extends regulatory function of ICC over cable and wireless companies and telephone lines. Gave ICC power to begin court proceedings and suspend q’able rates.
Elec of 1912:Drama. TR made Progressiv (Bull Moose) Party. “New Ntnlism.” Strict reg of corps, crtn of tariff commission, women’s suffrage, min wages, direct elec of sens, no child labor, strong exec, more gov planning. TR didn’t see business as evil, but a devlpt that was necessary. Reps:Taft. Quiet Confidence. Dems:Wi. “New Freedom.”Unlike TR,Wi saw big busns as evil. Break up large corps, don’t reg them. Wi wanted indep for Philippines. Low trfs, banking reform, direct elec of senators. Wi won el.
The Wi Presidency: Wi lowered tariffs (trfs) (Underwood-Simmons Act). 16th Amend (graduated income tax). 17th Amend: direct elec of Sen. Fed Reserve Banking System provided reg and flexible $ policy. Fed Trade Com investigated unfair busns practices. Clayton Antirust Act exempted uns f/Antitrust Act. Children protected in work w/Keating-Owen Act. Credit reform of agric, Fed Farm Loan Act.
Econ (07-12): Short panic in 1907. Ntnl Monetary Commission: (p:132). Payne-Aldrich Trf: Taft endorsed this trf, which raised duties. Post Savings Bank:Taft recommend post offices to receive deposits+ pay interest. Pop Party liked idea. (1st para/p:133). Stdrd Oil ruined by Taft. (3rd para/p:133). States led way in social programs. 1st min wage in Mass. DuBois (Niagara Movement) calls for racial =. Labor un =IWW (Wobblies). Violent. Led by Tresca, Flynn, DeLeon, Jones, Hagerty, Haywood. Success. After Red Scare, gov ruins IWW. Mann Act:no prost. X-ray tube (Coolidge). Plastic devlpt by Little and Baekeland.
Foreign Rltns:Taft wanted to avoid army interventn by replacing “big stick” w/$ diplomacy. Amer investments would encourage econ, social, and pol stability. Mex: Madero overthrew Diaz. US feared ntnl interference w/their investments in Mex. Taft recognized Mad’s gov. Huerta takes power in Mex. Wi tells him to be Dem. He refused, +Wi sent troops to Vera Cruz. Lodge Corollary: (p:135). Root-Takahira Agreement: reiterates status quo in Asia. US+Ja. China Consortium: (p:135). Manchuria: (p:135).
Wi’s Inaugural:1) reduction of trf 2)reform ntnl banks and $ laws 3)improvements in antitrust laws. Underwood-Simmons Trf Act brings trf down f/the Payne-Aldrich Trf. 16th Amend authorized income tax. Fed Reserve Actp:136). Clayton Antitrust Act:stock ownership by a corp in a competing corp was illegal. One person cannot manage more then one corp. Price discrimination was prohibited. Officers of corps could be held personally responsible for violations of antitrust laws. Uns weren’t in restraint of trade. Fed Trade Commission Act: (p:137). Evaluation: (p:137).
(Last p/p:137). Wi appoints Brandeis. Fed Farm Loan Act: Fed banks made farm mortgage loans at reasonable interest rates. Child Labor Act: forbade shipment in interstate commerce of products whose production had involved the labor of children -14/16. Eventually declared unconst (violated states rights). (5th p/p:138). Kurr-McGillicuddy Act: starts program of worker’s compensation for fed workers.
Elec of 1916:Dems nom Wi. Called for continued prog reforms+neutrality WWI. Reps nomin Hughes. Wi won.
Social Issues: McAdoo segregated Blacks. N. protested. Trotter criticized Wi (who backed McAdoo). Wi opposed women’s suffrage. He later changed his views. Wi opposed im restrictions.
Foreign Policy:“New Freedom.”Denounced imperialism and $ diplomacy. (Last p/p:139).
Wi w/draws Amer involvement f/consortium of Ch. Wi didn’t prevent passage of law prohibiting land ownership by Jas. Ja upset. The Caribbean: Wi wanted to protect Pan Can. Wanted poor ntns to do good. Wi kept marines in Nicaragua. Negotiated Bryan Chamorro Treaty: gives US option to build a canal through the ntn. Nic+Haiti became US protectorates. Wi sent marines to Domin Rep. Wi bought islands f/Denmark. Wi didn’t recognize gov of Huerta. (Last p/p:140). (1st p/p:141). Wi declared neutrality when WWI began. US supplied allies. Ge sub sinks Lusitania. Gore-McLemore Res: prohibits Amers to travel on armed ships or ships w/munitions. The Resolution was defeated by Congress, and never passed. Fr ship (Sussex) sunk. Ge: “Sussex Pledge” promised not to sink more ships? House-Grey Memo: House tries to offer mediation in the war. House proposed that Wi call a peace conference, and if Ge refused to attend, the US would back the Allied powers. Wi increased size of army. Preparedness: (p:142).
Elec of 1916: Wi promised to keep ntn out of WWI. Ge proposed peace conf. Wi told both to state their objectives. Ge was evasive, and said it didn’t want Wi at the conf. Ge starts sub warfare again. Zimmerman Telegram: Ge-Mex. Ge proposed that Mex attack the US. Ja invited to join alliance against the US. Wi declared war on Ge. Reasons:Zim Telegram, Amer shipping & US could hasten an end to the war.
WWI: Selective Service Act made the draft. S. pol leaders didn’t want blacks to serve. Many ships were sunk by Ge. Am Expeditionary Force: under Pershing. Sent to Fr. Major Military Engagements: (See p:144). Council of Ntnl Defense: coordinated ind mobilization. Little authority. War Ind Board: control raw materials, product, prices,+labor rltns. Overman Act increases power of Wi (there’s a war). Wi appointed Baruch to head the WIB. WIB allocated raw materials, standardized manufactured products, instituted strict prod+purchasing controls,+paid high prices to business for their products. The US had to supply Eng+Fr w/food. Lever Act gave prez control of production, price, and distribution of food+fuel. Hoover headed the Food Admin. Hoover made high prices to encourage prod. Conservation: “Wheatless Mondays.” “Meatless Tues.” Fuel Admin under Harry Garfield. Coal prod+conservation. “Fuelless Mondays.” Snow hurt railrds. Wi made the US Railrd Admin under McAdoo. Improved tracks. US Shipping Board made the Emergency Fleet Corp (Hurley). Bought, built, leased, and operated merchant ships. Made large fleets. War Labor Board made under Taft and Walsh. WLB prohibited strikes. Encouraged higher wages. # of uns increased during the war. Revenue Act makes personal income tax. (2nd p/p:146). Am Protective League displayed war hysteria. Espionage Act fines and imprisons ppl who make false statements that aid Ge, incited rebellion, or obstructed recruitment of soldiers. Sedition Act forbade criticism of the gov. Goldstein was fined for his movie, The Spirit of ’76, which was about the Am Rev. E.V. Debs was arrested. Espionage Act upheld in Shenk v. United States. “Clear and Present danger.” Sedition Act upheld in Abrams v. United States.
Social Trends: Women hired in factories. The way was paved for victory of suffragists after war. Labor shortage opened opportunities for blacks+Mex Amers. DuBois supported war effort. Blacks moved N, and some whites tried to stop them. Alcohol prohib. Wi’s 14 pts (see Peterson’s). Elec of 1918: Reps won? (3rd p/p:148). Versailles Peace Conference: Wi=1st pres to leave US during his term in office. Ppl who went w/Wi: Lansing, Bliss, House,+White. Lloyed George (Eng), Clemenceau (Fr), Orlando (It). “Big Four.” Russia wasn’t at Conf. (1st real p/p:149). Wi failed to secure freedom of the seas, free trade, reduction of arms, and the return of Rus to the society of free ntns. Some parts of the treaty: 1)League 2)Ge held responsible for war 3)New ntns formed 4)Ge colonies went to Fr, Ja, Eng,+others. Ge forced to sign treaty.
Senate didn’t like Article X of the League: defend other ntns in the league. Treaty rejected. Lodge made some reservations to the treaty. Wi hated reservations. US emerged as the econ leader in the world after WWI. The Esch-Cummings (Transportation) Act returned railrds to private ownership and operation. ICC gets more control of their rates and financial affairs, and allowed supervised pooling. Fleet of ships was sold to private ppl. 18th Amend prohibits alcohol. 19th Amend: women’s suffrage. US econ did well during 1st ½ of 20s. Many strikes in 1919. Some successful. Red scare: ppl hate uns. Boston police struck. AFL organized steel strike, opposed by Gary. United Mine Workers of Am (Lewis) struck. Palmer called off the strike.
Red Scare: Communist in Rus. The Palmer Raids:Palmer named Hoover to head Intelligence
Division. Palmer arrested many ppl. Deported many. Palmer said there would be riots. There were none,
and Pal was discredited. When Blacks moved N, there were race riots in the N. Chicago. Lynchings.
Elec of 1920: Inflation after war. Looks like Reps would win. Reps nom Warren Harding. Opposed League. Promised low taxes, high trfs, low im,+aid to farmers. Dems=Cox. Endorsed League, but left the door open for reservations. Harding:ntn should return to normalcy. S backs Dem. Harding won.
There was a recession f/1920-21. Eur stopped consuming Am goods. Agric did very poorly during 20s. Ind became much more productive+efficient. By 29, 70% x ind power came f/e. Moving assembly line introduced by Henry Ford. Fred Taylor:Sci management. #1 driving force of the econ in 20s:automobile. Fed Highway Act starts fed highway system+gave matching funds to the states for construction.
Other leading industries: Electrical ind expanded. Home and business construction experienced a boom. Chemicals and printing. Movie ind. Radio and commercial aviation. (2nd 3rd,+last ps/p:155).
Nonunion workplace=open shop. Ntnl Association of Manufactures tried to prevent the formation of uns. Un membership drops. Farmers didn’t share in prosperity of the 20s. Eur demand for farm products drops after WWI. Urbanization in 20s. Rise in living standards. Farmers= ¼ of the pop. Freud advocated sexual promiscuity. Women didn’t really vote as a block, so politicians didn’t pay much attention to them.
DuBois attacked segregation. NAACP called for civil rights. Ntnl Urban League called for mp and econ advancement. Garvey and UNIA: Universal Negro Improvement Association. Advocated black racial pride+separatism (not integration), and a return of blacks to Af. Advocated black econ self-sufficiency. Buy only f/blacks. Founded chain of businesses. Af empire. Garvey legacy: black pride+self- respect.
Mexs begin to settle in cities. Lived in barrios. 1920s saw large im f/Puerto Rico.
Free elementary ed available. Kindergarten. Smith-Hughes Act: gave fed funds for agric and tech studies. Church and synagogue membership increased during the 20s. The only issue that united Protestants was prohibition. Commercial radio began w/KDKA.
Literary Trends: (See p:160).
Reasons for the Depression: (See 1st 5 paras on p:169).Hoover was pres. Farmer’s drop in income was more severe then the incomes of laborers. Banks were suffering.
Hoover’s Depression Policies:Agric Marketing Act made the Fed Farm Board. Hawley-Smoot tariff reased duties. Didn’t improve econ. Ho believed in cooperation. Told managers to avoid laying off workers and giving lower wages. Gave some $ to public works. Reconst Finance Corp (RFC) criticized as relief for rich. Fed Home Loan Bank Act. Hoover opposed the use of fed funds for relief. Vetoed the Garner-Wagner Bill (wouldh have given relief). Let RFC give some $. BonusExpeidtionary Force: Group of veterans who wanted payment immediately. Ho didn’t pass the bonus bill. Ho told MacArthur to drive the Bonues E. Force out of Wash DC.
Farm Holiday Association headed by Milo Reno called a farm strike. Strike failed.
Franklin D. Roosevelt backed by S+W deleggtes through the efforst fo Howe and Farley. FDR called for repeal of prohibition,k gove aid to unemployed, and reduction in gov spending. Ho promised higher tariffs and maintenance of gold standard. Ho was running against FDR. FDR won the election.
FDR: F/NY. Marrie d Anna Eleanor Roosevelt. Advisors included: Hull, Wallace (agric), Ickes, Perkins, and Farley. Also economist Tugwell, Moley, Berle, Ju., Johnson and Peek. And Howe. “New Deal.”
FDR wanted to experiemetn and see what worked. No set plan. Repeal of Prohibition in 1933 (21st Amendment). Three was a banking crisis. FDR was optimistic. He closed all banks and forbade the export of gold of the redemption of currency in gold. 1933-35= “First New Deal.”
Than bnaking crisis was very serious. Emergecy Banking Relief Act passed: Gave funds for banks f/the RFC and Fed Reserve, allowed Treasurey to open sound banks, and forbade hoarding or export of gold. Banking Act (Glass-Steagall Act) ests FDIC. Truth-in-Securities Act required that info about stoacks and bonds be provided by broders to purchasers. Home Wners Loan Copr (HOOC). Nnt went off of gold standard. Securiteis and Exchange Commission supervised stock exchanges and punished fraud in securities trading. Fed Emergencyh Relief Act goave aid to poor. 1-3 matching basis. Ests the Fed Emergency Relief Administ (FERA) under Hopkins. Civilain Conseration Corps hired ppl. Public Works Adminsitartion (PWA) led by Ickes. Gavoe $ to state govs. PWA made construction jobs. Civil Works Administration (Hopkins) hired unemployed workers. Swept streets. Agricult Adjustmetn Act made the Agric And Adminsit (AAA) under Peek. Sought to reture farm prices to those of 1909. Declared unconst. Fed Farm Loan Act . Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act helped farmers recover lost property.
National Industrial Recovery Act: sought to stabilize econ by preventing compettiont, labor-management conflict, and over-production. Drew up a code of minimum prices wages, max work hrs, and production limits. Make few goods to bring prices up. Section 7a led ppl for unions. Ntnl Rcover Adminsit (NRA) make under Johnson to enforce law. Law declared unconst in Schechter v. US.
Tennesse Valley Authority: A was public planning. Build dams and improved forests and helped environ. Electric power.
Effects of 1st New Deal: econ improved but remained far f/recovered.
2nd New Deal + Opposition: partial econ recover brought criticism. Risht said FDR dod toom much, and left said he didn tdo enough. Conservatives criticized fed spending for relierf, and gov reg of business. They called ti socialis. Pooor thought that ND esp the NRA, was too favorable to big business. NRA codes gave control of indust to big business. Farmes said NRA set prices too high. Olp ppl pised off. Amer Liberty League formed to defend business interests and promote open shop. Finacnced b y Du Pont Family. Backed by Alfred Smith and and Davis. Old Age Revolving Pension Plan was advanced by Francis Townsehd Proposed the r retirec ppl get a pension of $220 per month, w/requremetn that $ be spent in a month. Funded by tax. “Share Our Wealth” backed by Huey Long. He was a populist. Louiaianna. Take f/the rich, and give to the poor. Ntnl Union for Social Justice headed by Coughlin, a priest. Very popll. Anti-FDR. Advocated an inflationary currency and was anti-Semitic.
2nd New Deal Begins: NRA destroyed by Sup Court. “2nd 100 Days.” Works Progress Administration (WPA) was started following the passage of the Eermgency Relierf Apporroations Act. Headed by Hokins. Employed the unemployed. Most projects were in construction. Nntnl Youth Damin was est as part of the WPA to provide jobs for students to let theim pay for school. Resettelemtnh Admin (RA) made in Agric Dept under Tugwell. Relocated poor families f/hopeless situatios to neew homesteads. Ntnl Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) repleace dSection 7a of the NIRA. Reafirmed labor’s right teo unionisze, prohibited unfair labor pracccitces, and mande the NTnl Labor Relations board to oversee fariness in labor-management relatniosn. Social Securitny AAct est terirement palnt byh tax on wages paid equally by employer. (2nd para on p:178). Banking Act made a strong Board of Governors of the Fed Reserve System w/powers over operations of regional banks. Pub Utility Holding Company Act (Whity holding companies ton one natural region and to eleimatnte duplicate holding companies. Wheeler-Rayburn Act) let Securitneis and Exhange Commission restrict pub uti. (Just See 3-6th para of p:178).
Election fo 1936: Dems nominate FDR. Requirement of 2/3 vote for nomination. “Expand farm program, labor legislation, more rus l electrification and pub housing, and enforcement of antitrust laws.” Fight for Dema nand capitalism. Reps nominated Alfred Landon. Criticized New Deal. Called for higher tariffs. And lower corporate taxes. Promised better relier. Reps said they’d do same thing as FDR, only better. Union Party: Townsend, Coughlin, and Smint ofrganized Union Paryt ot oppose FDR. Nominated Lemke. FDR won elect. Dems backed by S and Mid west and in some cities. Workers and blacks started to back Dems. FDR wanted to curtp power of Sup Court. Proposed Judicao Reorganization Bill whoich allowed the pres ot name an e (see 4th para on p:179).
Econ improved f/1935-37. But there were fed deficits. FDR watned to recuce relief. WPA experienced a cut. F/1937-8, econ did very poorly. FDR called fo an emergencyh appropriation for the WPA, and aincreas in pub worls and other programs. Econ began to recover. Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act made the Farme Securityh Amin (FSA) to replace the RA. FSA loaned money to farmers. Est health programs. Ntnl Housing Act (Wagner-Steagall Act) est the US Housing Authority woich ledt $ to housing projects. 2nd Agric Anj Act gave funds fo rfsoil consedrat
Vation to farmers who would remove land from production. Let Agric Dept impose market quotas to prevent surpluses in cotton, tob and other tihnngs. Fair Labor Standars Act (“minimum wage law”) made a minimum wage and hrs. Workers in small business es and pub wors weren’t covered.
|By ser on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 09:16 pm: Edit|
incognito, i thought you said you were gonna leave the forums?
hahaa, you loser.
|By Incognito (Incognito) on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 09:35 pm: Edit|
did i ever say that? when?
|By paul on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 09:40 pm: Edit|
what is your disclaimer?
|By Incognito (Incognito) on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 09:45 pm: Edit|
Its in the SAT/ACT forum. It's long, and I cant find it. Go see if you can....
And ser needs to get a life....
|By Paul on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 09:56 pm: Edit|
I found your disclaimer Incognito. I will post it for everybody else.
Now here are my notes. I just have one thing to say before you even glance at them, though. They are frought with abreviations. You probably will not even understand them at all. Practically everything has been written in my own privage abreviated note-taking language. Good luck reading them! They took a long time to put together. They helped me a lot (especially for the MCQs, but unfortunately my essay-writing skills are inadequate, which explains the 4). Note taking is in itself an act of studying. I thus suggest that you TAKE YOUR OWN NOTES INSTEAD OF USING MINE!!! You will do much better if you read books, pay attention in class, and write your own notes. I'm only publishing these notes so that you ppl dont think that I am BSing or something. BTW: sorry for the smilies here and there. They just showed up because I had things in my notes that were apparently written in JAVA w/o me even knowing it. Also, you may find a few offensive abreviations (such as Jap for Japanese). But please try to understand that I never intended on publishing these. I am not a racist, so please dont consider me to be one. I did not mean to sound racist or bad when I wrote these notes, so do not get the wrong idea or anything!!
|By Incognito (Incognito) on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 09:57 pm: Edit|
thank you, Paul
|By Paul on Monday, February 17, 2003 - 10:01 pm: Edit|
No problem. Thank you for the notes.
|By aer on Wednesday, February 19, 2003 - 01:38 am: Edit|
omfg, incognito, you are such a fag.
on the sat board, you posted some like, "my mom caught me jacking off to a 1600 sat scantron, and i realized that i am a loser, and i need to stop posting here, goodbye."
|By - on Thursday, February 20, 2003 - 04:41 pm: Edit|
|By angelita on Saturday, February 22, 2003 - 12:29 am: Edit|
last year, i did that with gov and politics (one in morning, one in afternoon) and chem the next morning.
of the six i'm taking this year, the worst day will be bio(morning), physics c mechanics and physics c electricity and magnetism (afternoon)
sleep enough; don't study the 24 hrs immediately preceding test day. if you don't know it by then, too late anyway.
|By Tester on Saturday, February 22, 2003 - 01:19 am: Edit|
Just a thought...the notes posted above are both long and arduous as well as kind of superfluis. If I were you, I would read the Princeton Review's: Cracking the A.P. U.S. History Exam. I know everyone prepares in their own way, but I took the exam last year. I read and did all the homework for the class the entire year and read the P.R. review book cover to cover and got a 5, no problem. I wish you luck, but as a person who has already taken the test, I just advise you to be wary of memorizing many pointless facts and to look at the whole scope of American History and understand what was going on politically, economically, and socially throughout the years 1600-1975. Good luck!
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