Help <--- AP Lang. / Comp. terms

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Discus: SAT/ACT Tests and Test Preparation: May 2004 Archive: Help <--- AP Lang. / Comp. terms
By Lahlahlah (Lahlahlah) on Sunday, May 02, 2004 - 07:23 pm: Edit

where can i find an online source for the terms on the AP Language and Composition site, post a good website if you know one thanks!

By Simplyloved (Simplyloved) on Sunday, May 02, 2004 - 08:06 pm: Edit

Vocabulary List

abstract terms: As opposed to concrete terms, abstract terms represent ideas or thoughts – generalities.
adage: A saying or proverb embodying a piece of common wisdom based on experience and often couched in metaphorical language. Examples of adages: It is always darkest before the dawn. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. A fool and his money are soon parted. Also see aphorism and maxim.
allegory: The recounting of an unreal series of experiences bearing such close resemblance to reality as to encourage the reader to make the association; an extended metaphor.
alliteration: The repetition of one or more initial sounds, usually consonants, in a group of words or a line from a poem.
allusion: A reference to a person, place, event, or other source meant to create an effect or enrich the meaning of an idea.
ambiguity: Multiple meaning; lack of clarity in a work consciously used as a phase of the author’s views of his/her world or characters and reflecting the vagueness of life.
anachronism: The incorporation of an event, scene, or person who does not correspond with the time period portrayed in the work; as Shakespeare’s use of a cannon in King John or a hat in Julius Caesar.
antithesis: The rhetorical opposition or contrast of words, clauses, or sentences, as in the following:
“as action, not words”
“They promised freedom but provided slavery”
“Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.” – John F. Kennedy
aphorism: A short, pithy statement of a generally accepted truth or sentiment, such as “The road to Hell is often paved with good intentions.” See also adage and maxim.
apostrophe: A locution that addresses a person or personified thing not present. An example: “Oh, you cruel streets of Manhattan, how I detest you!”
bombast: Inflated language; the use of high-sounding language for a trivial subject.
burlesque: A literary composition that aims to provoke laughter by ridiculing serious works; a grotesque imitation of the dignified or pathetic.
cacophony: The use of inharmonious sounds in close conjunction to create an effect. Contrast with euphony.
caricature: A grotesque likeness of striking characteristics in persons or things.
cliché: An overused or trite expression.
concrete terms: As opposed to abstract terms, concrete terms refer to things that have actual existence, that can be seen or known.
connotation: The suggested or implied meaning of a words or phrase. Contrast with denotation.
consonance: The repetition of two or more consonant sounds in a group of words or a like of poetry.
denotation: The dictionary definition of a word or phrase. Contrast with connotation.
diction: The selection of word sin oral or written discourse.
dramatic irony: An inconsistency, known by the audience or reader, between a character’s perception of a situation and the truth of the situation.
ellipsis, elliptical: Three periods (…) indicating the omission of words. A sentence with elliptical structure omits something in the second half, usually the verb in a subject-verb-object sentence, as in “May was hot and June the same.” The verb was is omitted from “June was the same.”
epigram: The ingenious, witty, thoughtful, provocative statement.
euphony: The use of pleasant, harmonious words to create an effect. Contrast with cacophony.
exposé: a piece of writing, often journalistic, meant to reveal or expose weakness, faults, frailties, or other shortcomings.
exposition: The explanation or analysis of a subject; setting forth the meaning or purpose of an issue of set of facts.
genre: A term used to describe literary forms such as tragedy, comedy, novel, and essay.
humanism: In common usage, an attitude that emphasized human interests; an optimistic view of human potential.
humor: The quality in action, speech, or writing that excites amusement; less intellectual than wit and have a more sympathetic tone.
hyperbole: Overstatement; gross exaggeration for rhetorical effect.
imagery: The use of words to represent what can be seen, touched, smelled, tasted, or felt- in short, sensory language.
invective: In satirical writing, the use of denunciatory, angry, and insulting language.
irony: A form of expression in which the meaning intended is the opposite from what is stated; also used to define the tragic contrast between the aspirations of human beings and the dark elements of life that frustrate them; in addition, used to describe the view of humanity in which human limitations and posturings are seen as debasing and ridiculous, there is in the ironic view an element of mockery.
lampoon: A violent and scurrilous satirical attack against a person or institution.
litotes: A form of understatement in which the negative of the contrary is used to achieve emphasis and intensity. An example: He is not a bad dancer.
loose sentence: A sentence that follows the customary word order of English sentences i.e., subject verb object. The main idea of the sentence if presented first and is then followed by one or more subordinate clauses. See also periodic sentence.
maxim: A saying or proverb expressing common wisdom or truth. See also adage and aphorism.
metaphor: A figure of speech that compares unlike objects.
metonymy: A figure of speech that uses the name of one thing to represent something else with which it is associated. Example: “The White House says…”
mood: The emotional response that a piece of literature stimulates in the reader.
motif: A device that serves as a unifying agent in conveying a theme.
narrative: A form of verse or prose that tells a story.
nonsequitur: A statement or idea that fails to follow logically from the one before.
omniscient narrator: A narrator with unlimited awareness, understanding and insight of character, setting, background, and all other elements of the story.
onomatopoeia: The use of words whose sounds suggest their meaning. Example: bubbling, murmuring brooks.
oxymoron: A term made up of contradictory elements brought into juxtaposition to create a paradoxical effect. Examples: loud silence, jumbo shrimp.
parable: Similar to allegory, but shorter; a story in which the author intends that the reader will relate the events of the story to some moral or spiritual truth. Unlike a fable, the parable deals with events that can occur in the real world.
paradox: A statement that seems self-contradictory, but is nevertheless true.
parody: A satirical imitation of a work for the purpose of ridiculing its style and subject.
pathos: That element of literature that stimulates pity or sorrow.
periodic sentence: A sentence that departs from the usual word order of English sentences by expressing the main thought only at the end. In other words, the particulars in the sentence are presented ahead of the idea they support. See also loose sentence.
personification: A figure of speech in which objects and animals are given human qualities.
point of view: The view, whether limited or omniscient, the reader gets of the action and characters in a story.
pun: A humorous play on words, using similar sounding or identical words to suggest different meanings. Example:
“I’m glad we are out of Vietnam,” she said.
“So am I” he replied. “It was time to let Saigons be Saigons.”
realism: In literature and art, the depiction of people, things, and experiences as it is believed they really are without idealization or exaggeration; in recent use, it has often been used synonymously with naturalism as depicting events that are unpleasant or sordid.
rhetoric: The language of a word and its style; similar to diction.
Romanticism: In literature and art, the depiction of idealized, fabulous, or fantastic characters and events; the stories abound in dashing, extravagant adventures, characters of extreme virtues or faults, exotic worlds, strong and inflexible loyalties, and idealized love-making.
sarcasm: A sharp, caustic expression or remark; a bitter gibe or taunt; different from irony, which is more subtle.
satire: A literary style used to make fun of or ridicule an idea or human vice or foible, frequently with the intent of changing or altering the subject being attacked. Jonathan Swift’s famous essay, “A Modest Proposal” is a classic example of satirical writing.
sentence structure: The manner in which grammatical elements are arranged in a sentence. Although there are endless varieties of sentences, each is a variation on one of the three basic structures: simple, compound, and complex. (1) A simple sentence contains a subject and a verb along with modifiers and perhaps an object. (2) A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences linked by a conjunction such as and or but. (3) A complex sentence is made up of an independent, or main, clause and any number of dependent or subordinate clauses.
style: The manner in which an author uses words, shapes ideas, forms sentences, and creates a structure to convey ideas.
symbolism: The use of one object to suggest another, hidden, object or idea.
synecdoche: A figure of speech in which a part signifies the whole (fifty masts for fifty ships) or the whole signifies the part (days for life, as in “He lived his days under African skies.”) When the name of a material stands for the ting itself as in pigskin for football that, too, is a synecdoche.
theme: The main idea or meaning, often an abstract idea upon which a work of literature is built.
tone: The author’s attitude toward the subject being written about. The tone in the characteristic emotion that pervades a work or part of a work- the spirit or character that is a work’s emotional essence.
trope: Words used with a decided change or extension in their literal meaning; the use of a word in a figurative language.
verbal irony: A discrepancy between the true meaning of a situation and the literal meaning of the written or spoken words.
verisimilitude: Similar to truth; the quality of realism in a work that persuades the reader that he/she is getting a vision of life as it is.
voice: The real or assumed personality used by a writer or speaker. In grammar, active voice and passive voice refer to verbs. A verb is in the active voice when it expresses an action performed by its subject. A verb is in the passive voice when it expresses an action performed upon its subject or when the subject in the result of the action.
ACTIVE: The crew raked the leaves.
PASSIVE: The leaves were raked by the crew.
Stylistically, the active voice makes for more economical and vigorous writings.
wit: The quickness of intellect and the power and talent for saying brilliant things that surprise and delight by their unexpectedness; the power to comment subtly and pointedly on the foibles of the passing.

By Mastadecoy3 (Mastadecoy3) on Sunday, May 02, 2004 - 08:11 pm: Edit

What's the term for appealing to one's sense of pride/honor in a persuasive essay ?

By Simplyloved (Simplyloved) on Sunday, May 02, 2004 - 08:21 pm: Edit

the only thing i can think of is hubris. hubris is the downfall of a character due to human characteristics ie pride, fear blah blah

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